Cultivation of grapes has been known in the Middle East since 4000 BC. Only in the year 2500 BC, Egyptians developed the processing technology of wine. Now wine has spread worldwide and is a valuable economic commodity. Approximately 75,866 square kilometer area planted grape in the world.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2009), the ten largest wine producing country in the world are: Italy, PRC, USA, France, Spain, Turkey, Iran, Argentina, Chile and India.
As for the wine center of Indonesia are in Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Situbondo, (East Java), Bali and Kupang (NTT).
In Indonesia, the wine is known began in 1682. Then in 1828 began cultivating grapes in Banyuwangi and Besuki. In 1899 began to be known Probolinggo blue and white wines, which then in 2002 developed into a grape varieties and Probolinggo Super King Bestari.
King Bestari red wine varieties can be planted up to a height of 300 meters above sea level and produces 10-30 kg of fruit / tree. Another plus contain resveratrol (1.5 to 3 mg / liter), sugar (20 brix), acid (1.9%), vitamin C (23.23 mg/100 g), levels of juice (47.77%).
Grapes (Vitis vinifera) can be eaten raw or made vinegar, supplements / extracts, jelly, juice, raisins, oil, jam, wine (the fermented juice of a kind drinks wine), also used as raw materials in the Confectionery (company / store sugar maker -sugars).
Grape has anti diabetes effects. GSPE (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract) is reportedly effective in treating diabetic nephropathy. GPSE (250 mg / kg body weight / day) also repair heart damage associated with glycation in experimental animals.
In addition, grape seed extract also has a beneficial effect anti hiperglikemik thus preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experiments conducted N.Şendoğdu, et (2006) proved that the ethanol extract of grape leaves at doses of 250 mg / kg has anti diabetes and anti oxidant activity is high.
In general, the optimum dose recommended grape seed extract is 150-200 mg / day, 2-3x a drink, or the advice of a doctor / herbalist.
Grape seed extract has anti oxidant activity and an antidote to free radicals. Procyanidin inhibits xanthine oxidase activity; enzyme triggers oxy-radical cascade. In addition, procyanidin B4, catechin, and gallic acid is reported as an agent preventing oxidative DNA damage at the cellular level.